Enzyme research delivers Chemistry Nobel Prize to two Americans and a Brit

Do You Speak Differently of the Physics Nobel Prize If a Woman Wins It

The American immunologist and Tasuku Honjo of Japan jointly won on Monday the 2018 Nobel Medicine Prize for research into how the body's natural defences can fight cancer.

The Nobel Laureates have taken "control of evolution and used it for purposes that bring the greatest benefits to human kind", the committe said on its website on Tuesday.

Researchers have learned to use the process of evolution to develop new forms of molecules that are used to manufacture everything from biofuels to pharmaceuticals, such as Humira, which sold about $18 billion past year. Winter used the process to make new pharmaceuticals, and it's made "antibodies that can neutralise toxins, counteract autoimmune diseases and cure metastatic cancer".

As per the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the trio managed to harness the power of evolution, applying the principles of Darwin in test tubes, to solve some of the world's worst problems.

"Our laureates this year have been able to direct evolution, to steer it, which has led to new chemicals that can be used in everything from environmentally friendly detergents to the creation of new biofuels and pharmaceuticals", said Gustafsson. Its content is created separately from USA TODAY. "Her work is incredible". In the case of the Nobel prize which is given for peace, the Norwegian Parliament decides it.

Smith was quick to credit the work of others in his prize.

He built up a collection of phages, with billions of antibody varieties on their surface, and engineered them make them more effective. There are an very bad lot of brilliant scientists and there aren't enough Nobel prizes to go around'.

"I had no idea they would be so commercially successful.it was a complete paradigm shift", he told reporters in a conference call. Clearly his entrepreneurial vision, ability to surround himself by extremely competent people and openness to new techniques such as phage display makes him a worthy victor of this year's Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

In the 1990s, Sir Gregory developed a new way of producing antibody proteins using a technique called "phage display" that makes use of genetically engineered viruses.

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The 2018 Nobel Prize laureates for Chemistry are shown on the screen during the announcement. "I think my life will pretty much go on, as it has in the last three years". She is now the Linus Pauling Professor of Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering and Biochemistry at California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA.

"And at first, of course, I thought it was one of my sons, with a problem", says Arnold.

The first antibody based on this method, adalimumab, was approved in 2002 and is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel diseases.

Smith said he and his wife are discussing what to do with the cash prize, which they intend to donate.

Women have claimed the Nobel Prize at least 12 times in three of the other four fields - peace, literature and medicine - with economics still nearly exclusively the domain of men.

He has authored and coauthored more than 50 articles in top scientific journals, and he was selected by the American Society of Microbiology for its 2007 Promega Biotechnology Research Award.

The other half was shared by University of Missouri professor George Smith and British biochemist Gregory Winter.

The Nobel Prize in chemistry, which honors researchers for advances in studying how molecules combine and interact, is being announced Wednesday by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

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