Neutrino particle gives scientists new understanding of universe

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Neutrinos, always accompanied by the photons, possess no charge, so unlike the electrically charged particles of cosmic rays that can be deflected by cosmic magnetic fields, they can travel through the universe without detours.

Acting as "messengers", neutrinos directly carry astronomical information from the far reaches of the Universe. But neutrinos have little or no mass, travel at almost the speed of light, are not electrically charged and rarely interact with normal matter. She says: "Seeing gamma-rays with MAGIC at the same time as the neutrino is an important piece of evidence suggesting that these were both made by processes in the blazar jet".

Now neutrinos give us a third, or we can say a more weird way of discovering the universe because of they, not gravitational ways, as well as light, but it seems something different, it is near about a kind of extra-sensory perception for astrophysicists. "Such breakthroughs are only possible through a long-term commitment to fundamental research and investment in superb research facilities".

Blazars are massive elliptical galaxies that contain supermassive fast-spinning black holes at their centers.

TXS 0506+056 is how the blazar is called, and its location is at about 4 billion light-years from Earth in a galaxy which is in the direction of the constellation Orion but is not visible with the naked eye.

The IceCube collaboration, on September 22, 2017, detected an ultra-high-energy neutrino that arrived at the South Pole and was able to identify its source.

ESA's Integral observatory is able to detect gamma-ray bursts, the most energetic phenomena in the Universe.

Observations made by researchers using a National Science Foundation (NSF) detector at the South Pole and verified by ground- and space-based telescopes have produced the first evidence of one source of high-energy cosmic neutrinos.

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"I think this is the real thing", said John Learned, a neutrino expert at the University of Hawaii who is not part of IceCube, in an email, "the true beginning of high energy neutrino astronomy, of which we have dreamed for many decades".

Researchers from a multi-group project have reported the detection of particles that make up these cosmic rays.

"I have been working in this field for nearly 30 years and to find an actual neutrino source is an incredibly exciting moment", said Gary Hill of the University of Adelaide in Australia. In particular, measurements of neutrinos can reveal the mechanisms for particle acceleration of the proton beam in the densest environments that even high-energy gamma rays may not escape. "But to understand what they're telling us, we need to connect them to the "messenger" astronomers know best-light", emphasized Paul Hertz, director of NASA's Astrophysics Division in Washington, DC.

Two papers published this week in the journal Science discuss the neutrino detection, follow-up observations and interpretation of the data.

A celestial object known as a blazar is a source of high-energy neutrinos, report two new studies. The detector is composed of more than 5,000 light sensors arranged in a grid, buried in a cubic kilometer of deep, pristine ice a mile beneath the surface at the South Pole.

When a neutrino interacts with the nucleus of an atom, it creates a secondary charged particle, which produces a cone of blue light that can be detected.

While astronomers around the world scrambled to their telescopes to get in on the fun, the IceCube scientists scoured their previous data and found that there had been previous outbursts of neutrinos from the galaxy, which they nicknamed the "Texas source", including an enormous neutrino outburst in 2014 and 2015.

IceCube continuously monitors the sky, including through the Earth to the northern hemisphere, and detects a neutrino every few minutes.

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